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What is the difference between Java and C++. ?

Posted on January 23, 2018

Introduction to Java

Java is a popular, high-level programming language widely used to develop enterprise applications, web servers, and mobile apps. It is an object-oriented language, which means that it is based on the concept of objects, classes, and inheritance. Java is also platform-independent, meaning the code can be written once and run on any device or operating system with a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) installed.


One of the key features of Java is its automatic memory management. Java uses a garbage collector to automatically manage the memory the program uses, eliminating the need for manual memory management and reducing the likelihood of memory leaks. This makes Java a great choice for large, complex applications requiring much memory.


Java also has a wide range of libraries and frameworks, making it easier to develop complex applications. Some popular Java libraries include Spring, Hibernate, and Apache Struts. These libraries provide pre-written code that can be used to perform common tasks, such as connecting to a database or handling web requests.


Java also has a large and active community, which means that many resources are available for learning and troubleshooting. Many online tutorials, forums, and documentation are available to help new programmers get started with Java.


To write a Java program, you must install a Java Development Kit (JDK) on your computer. The JDK includes the Java compiler and other tools to develop Java applications. Once the JDK is installed, you can write your code using a text editor or an Integrated Development Environment (IDE). Some popular IDEs for Java include Eclipse and IntelliJ IDEA.


Learn more about Java


Introduction to C++

C++ is a powerful, high-performance programming language widely used in various applications, including video games, operating systems, and scientific simulations. It is an extension of the C programming language, developed in the 1970s by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs.


One of the key features of C++ is its support for object-oriented programming (OOP). This programming paradigm allows for the creation of complex and modular code by organizing data and functions into objects that interact. C++ also supports other programming paradigms, such as procedural and generic programming.


Another important feature of C++ is its support for templates, which allow for creation of generic functions and classes that can work with various data types. This feature allows for the creation of more efficient and versatile code and reduces the amount of code needed to be written.


C++ also includes a number of advanced features, such as operator overloading, exception handling, and the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL is a collection of commonly-used data structures and algorithms that are optimized for performance and can be easily used in C++ programs.


C++ is a complex and powerful language that requires a solid understanding of computer science concepts and programming principles. However, with the right resources and guidance, it can be a valuable tool for any programmer looking to create efficient and high-performing code.


There are several key differences between Java and C++:


Object-Oriented: Java is a fully object-oriented language, while C++ supports both object-oriented and procedural programming.


Platform independence: Java code is compiled to bytecode, which can run on any platform that has a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) installed. C++ code, on the other hand, is compiled to machine code, which is specific to the platform it was compiled on.


Memory management: Java has built-in automatic memory management (i.e. garbage collection), while C++ requires manual memory management through the use of pointers.


Exception handling: Java has a built-in exception-handling mechanism, while C++ requires the use of try-catch blocks.


Templates: C++ supports templates, which are a way of defining a single function or class that can work with multiple types of data, while Java does not support templates.


Standard Template Library (STL): C++ has a Standard Template Library (STL) that provides common data structures and algorithms, while Java has a similar library called the Java Collections Framework (JCF).


Syntax: Java and C++ have some differences in syntax, for example, C++ uses “->” for accessing class members while Java uses “.”.


Overall, Java is considered a more beginner-friendly language and is often used for developing web, mobile, and enterprise applications, while C++ is considered a more powerful and complex language and is often used for systems programming, video games, and other performance-critical applications.


Frequently Asked Questions


1. Question: Is it better to learn C++ or Java?

Answer: For beginners, it is better to learn C++ as the syntax of C++ is easier compared to Java and there is extensive support for standard data structures like stack, queue, etc., in C++. However, for more experienced coders, Java is a great programming language to know about as Java is used in a lot of big companies like Amazon, Google, etc. and, therefore, would help the developers a lot.  


2. Question: Is C++ more powerful than Java?

Answer: We cannot say that one language is more powerful than the other until the criteria for judgment are mentioned. In other words, in terms of performance, C++ is the winner. However, in terms of flexibility of usage, Java is better.


3. Question: Why is C++ used?

Answer: C++ is a semi-object-oriented programming language which is great for beginners to learn about the basics or fundamentals of object-oriented programming. Also, in areas like Gaming engines and High-Frequency Trading, etc., high performance is of utmost importance; hence, C++ is the preferred language in these fields.


4. Question: Is C++ a dying language?

Answer: To a certain extent, the answer to this question is Yes. Java and JavaScript had taken over a few years back, and Python seems to dominate the present (and future, perhaps). However, we have to also take into consideration the fact that C++ is still amongst the top five most popular languages. The fact that C++ usage is more domain-oriented does not necessarily mean it is dying.


5. Question: Which is better for beginners? C++ or Java?

Answer: To answer this question, one’s interests must be considered. If a beginner wants to do projects on the system side or make projects related to gaming engines, etc. and if making high-performance and fast systems is a priority, C++ is a better choice for those kinds of beginners than Java. However, Java offers way more features and easy-to-use libraries than C++ and, therefore, is preferred in the domain of Software Development by many developers. So, to easily build feature-rich applications, a beginner can choose Java over C++. 


6. Question: What is the main fundamental difference between C++ and Java?

Answer: The main difference between C++ and Java is that C++ is only a compiled language, while Java is both compiled and interpreted. The C++  compiler converts the source code into machine code and is platform dependent. However, Java source code is converted into bytecode by its compiler, and following that, the Java interpreter executes this bytecode at runtime and produces output. The fact that Java is interpreted is the reason why it is platform-independent.



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